The types of health indicators are classified according to the measurable events. Therefore, a comprehensive list of health indicators types is being discussed in this article. It establishes the limitations and practicality of the health indicators.
Furthermore, we will discuss the limited number of health indicators by its four dimensions as Health situation (mortality), health services, behavioral risk factors, and health situation (morbidity).
Morbidity Health Indicators
Morbidity health indicators are specially designed for the measurement of the disabilities of the population, disease occurrence, and injuries.
We express these health indicators by measuring the frequency and by measuring the incidents. However, direct observation is required for Assessing Morbidity rates, such as surveys and other researches, etc. Furthermore, it includes the reporting of the events by investigation systems, and reporting of an outpatient’s information system and the disease reports in the hospitals by the specific registries.
So there are so many factors that can affect the accuracy measuring of morbidity events, such as:
Quality of data:
It is difficult to measure and interpret the data from different areas of the country if the data quality is poor. Therefore, you need high data quality for collecting the right and accurate information among different countries. Data quality cooperates by the diverse sources of data on morbidity which interprets by the health indicators. Therefore, such data sources may include routine records of private and public in-patient or out-patients in the hospital, surveillance systems. And also they involve the surveys prepared by the research of different academic groups and national institutions.
Measurement instrument’s validity:
The accurate medical diagnostic tests (probably the diagnostic errors such as false negative and the false positive, etc.). Moreover, the data collection instrument’s validity that they use in the surveys and also the quality and coverage of the information system for the measurement instruments.
Moreover, the health indicators uses a more accurate and precise system for diagnostic tests and they have significant effects on case identification as well.
Mortality, Health Indicators
Mortality, health indicators are the fundamental source of cause of death, demographic, and geographic information. Therefore, they use data for the measure of the health problems, monitor and define the health goals and priorities as well.
Moreover, it measures mortality in a specific place for a specific time period. And also mortality measures are as a percentage, or a ratio, and the absolute numerical terms. In terms of morbidity, death rates are identifiable clearly and uniquely, which reflects the severity of diseases and their occurrence.
And it considers mortality as the most common source that defines the health status of a population. The data collection of mortality is compulsory for all American countries. And the death certificate is mandatory for defining the death rates by the health indicators.
There are some examples of mortality cases that health indicators define, such as an Infant mortality ratio, maternal mortality ratio, proportional mortality ration from illness cases, and acute mortality ratio among the children under the age of five.
Health Indicators for behavioral risk factors
In the current society, an epidemiological and demographic profile of the population in different countries increases the risk factors. These challenges pose the health surveillance practices to deal with infectious and chronic diseases.
It also relates to the importance of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD). Therefore, the monitoring of morbidity and mortality by the CNCD plays the most important role. But it is not applicable in all countries. Because the mortality rate due to lung cancer can only be observed in developed countries.
There are numerous risk factors of health indicators such as the prevalence of current adult smokers, insufficient physical activity, regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and excessive consumption of alcohol.